BIM在医疗和艺术建筑中的采用和实施（二） BIMTechnologyAdoptionandImplementationatMAAP(Part2)RahulShah BIM/CADManager,MAAPArchitects BIMPilotProjectAsmentionedearlier,thefirstRe
BIM/CAD Manager, MAAP Architects
BIM Pilot Project
As mentioned earlier, the first Revit pilot project was Roseberry Park, a large mental health re-provision project delivered under PFI (Private Finance Initiative) with MAAP as medical planner and architect. It is a redevelopment of the former St. Luke’s Hospital site in Middlesbrough, providing a new 312 bed inpatient facility that covers an area of 26,506 sq. m. on a new campus adjacent to the existing hospital (see Figure 4). The design focuses on the individual patient experience, breaking down the accommodation into a number of houses arranged around large activity gardens and courtyards to create an architecture of enclosure without fences, radically improving the environment and facilities at the disposal of the patients and staff. MAAP was responsible for the site master plan and the design of all of the new buildings on the site, including the interior design and specification of the fixtures and fittings. MAAP also managed the landscape design as a central part of its design strategy. The scheme also provides new offices and Facilities Management accommodation to help the Trust provide its services more efficiently. Construction on this project began in 2008 and it is expected to be completed soon.
The project CAD deliverables were produced using AutoCAD until the planning stage. The project team received three days of “Revit Fundamentals” training before embarking on the Revit journey. Each building was created as a separate Revit project file and they were all linked together in the master model (see Figure 5). AutoCAD plans were taken into Revit and the model was built off of them. One of the early challenges was project specific family creation. The team started with out-of-the-box Revit families and slowly started developing project specific families to 1:50 detail level.
The biggest selling point of Revit was the bidirectional associativity of plans, elevations, sections and schedules. Whenever a designer made any changes to any part of the building, the changes were propagated to all levels correcting relevant drawings and schedules automatically, saving a huge amount of time. For a typical 2D CAD workflow, this would have taken days to coordinate manually with the possibility of human errors. The architects were happy knowing they didn’t need to manually coordinate plans, elevations, sections, and schedules, and used that time saving to enhance the design. The overall productivity gain and enhanced design pleased the management as well. They felt that the investment was “worth every penny” and decided to commit to the BIM route to deliver all future projects and buy more Revit licenses.
Since this was MAAP’s first Revit project, and because of the fast track delivery programme, the decision was made to keep all the detail packages in AutoCAD rather than create them in Revit. However, Revit was used to produce G.A.s (“general arrangements,” which is the equivalent of “construction documents” in the US), elevations and sections, setting out plans, finishes plans, and door/window schedules (see Figure 6). CAD detailing beyond a 1:20 scale of detail was produced in AutoCAD based on Revit extracted information. Extended the use of the model further, it was also used for design review along with the building services model in NavisWorks, as shown in Figure 7.
Other BIM Projects
MAAP now uses Revit from very early sketch design stage to the construction documentation stage. The latest project to use Revit is CAMHS (Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services), a 40 bed inpatient facility for the Northumberland Tyne and Wear NHS Trust. To be built on a brownfield site on the existing hospital estate at Prudhoe, the scheme is composed of two buildings: a two storey shared activity centre and a single storey residential block accommodating four wards (see Figure 8). The environmental design approach is to maximize the use of natural daylight and ventilation and improve the immediate micro-climate of the scheme to minimize the mechanical services traditionally associated with hospital buildings.
In this project, BIM was used by all the major disciplines. The Architecture and Structural & Civil Engineering were done in Revit; the Timber frame manufacturer used 3D AutoCAD; and the M&E was done in 3D CADDUCT. All the different disciplinary models are interrogated through Navisworks during design review meetings on a fortnightly basis, with a particular focus on co-ordination of disciplines and clash detection. This process will be continued at all stages of the project. The MAAP team imports the consultants’ models straight into Revit to enable them to review their design in a 3D environment in the context of the other disciplines, as shown in Figure 9. The contractor uses Navisworks Manage to combine all the models and review the design at their end. On this project, MAAP has also developed a site-wide landscape 3D model in Revit to coordinate with the underground services and drainage models. This has proved to be very useful for the whole design team.
Benefits with BIMMAAP sees BIM as the main way forward for the AEC industry and is keen to stress that the process has benefits for everyone involved. The practice has realized manifold advantages with BIM: more accurate, better co-ordinated design data; earlier visualisation and collaboration with different project disciplines; automatic propagation of changes at all levels; plus the facility to improve energy efficiency and sustainability. The BIM process helps project teams create a more accurate initial design concept and then preserve that vision throughout the entire project. The software also helps to provide vital feedback for making aesthetic design decisions and understanding clash detection (see Figure 10). The availability of reliable data at every stage of the design process gives them greater agility, helps them make better-informed decisions, create more coherent and precise design models and documentation, and deliver enhanced quality designs on time (see Figure 11). MAAP has also participated in the effective use of a single project model across design disciplines once protocols had been agreed, as in the example of the CAMHS project discussed in the previous section.
The contractors and clients that MAAP is working with are also realizing huge benefits. The use of BIM is leading to fewer RFIs, with errors and omissions being detected well before construction. Also the building model is enabling them to better synchronize design and construction planning using 4D and 5D techniques. Benefits along the supply chain are being realized as well, with the BIM model being used to ensure “fit first time” for off-site fabrication. Clients are having a quality building delivered to cost and time, with health and safety and facilities management information up to date and in a user-friendly single database. BIM can also potentially reduce their building and maintenance costs going forward, leading to greater profit.
MAAP believes that BIM offers clear advantages for all project stakeholders and is therefore working towards offering a 100% BIM solution to its clients. To achieve this goal, MAAP is also exploring some additional BIM compatible tools, ADB (Activity Database) and Ecotect, to fit into its BIM jigsaw. ADB is the healthcare briefing and design system preferred by the NHS (National Health Services) and the Department of Health in the UK. Spaces designed using ADB comply with Department of Health guidelines. MAAP has been using Codebook and ADB successfully within 2D for many years to generate room loaded drawings and room data sheets. These tools link project program and equipment requirements to a CAD drawing.
MAAP recognizes that in order to offer a full BIM solution to its clients, this process needs to be translated to a BIM environment as well. The current state of the technology, however, does pose some challenges in this endeavor, as full interoperability between ADB and Revit is not available yet. An ADB-Revit plug-in is in the early stages of development, which loads the Revit model with the required furniture, fixtures and equipment from ADB to enable generation of room loaded plans and elevations within Revit (see Figure 12). MAAP is currently pioneering the use of this tool so that once the technology is fully matured, it will be ready to use on its live projects. The firm sees this as a natural extension of its BIM strategy and foresees that it will boost its room loading process productivity for its healthcare projects considerably, as well as help eliminate data co-ordination errors on this crucial task.
Figure 12. Example of an ADB-Revit generated Room Loaded Drawing.
As concern about rising energy costs, sustainability, and global warming continues to rise, MAAP is seeking practical, cost-effective ways to design buildings to limit energy usage, reduce utility costs, and keep greenhouse gas emissions to a minimum. It believes that it can accomplish these objectives by conducting comprehensive energy analysis studies with analysis tools such as Ecotect in conjunction with Revit Architecture.
MAAP’s early adoption of BIM technology and its ambition to go 100% BIM puts it in the category of the more advanced firms in the UK that are doing BIM. Its CAMHS project, in particular, was a very successful multi-disciplinary BIM project and MAAP was proud to be part of the project team. MAAP recognizes the competitive advantage that BIM provides in securing work and feels that the company is well-positioned for the future, given its expertise in BIM and its forward-looking exploration of the integration of applications such as ADB with Revit for application in healthcare projects.
About the Author
Rahul Shah is BIM/CAD Manager for MAAP Architects. He has been using and implementing CAD technology in the A/E/C industry for more than 11 years and is skilled in AutoCAD, Revit Architecture, SketchUp, and 3D Studio Max. He has performed consulting and teaching for private clients throughout UK and India. Since the last few years, his focus has been on the implementation and management of BIM technology, particularly in the healthcare sector, which includes content development and management, standards development, and training for Revit Architecture. He gives presentations before professional audiences on BIM technology implementation.